Soal Ujian AcEPT Part V (Composing Skill) : PARAPHRASE SENTENCE/PARAGRAPH

Parafrase adalah istilah linguistik yang berarti pengungkapan kembali suatu konsep dengan cara lain dalam bahasa yang sama, namun tanpa mengubah maknanya. Parafrase memberikan kemungkinan kepada sang penulis untuk memberi penekanan yang agak berlainan dengan penulis asli. Istilah parafrase berasal dari bahasa Inggris paraphrase, dari bahasa Latin paraphrasis, dari bahasa Yunani para phraseïn yang berarti “cara ekspresi tambahan”. Parafrasis adalah tindakan atau kegiatan untuk membuat parafrase, yaitu:

  1. Bacalah teks yang akan diparafrasa secara keseluruhan.
  2. Pahami topik atau tema dari teks tersebut, untuk teks berbentuk narasi pahami pula alur atau jalan ceritanya.
  3. Carilah kalimat utama pada setiap paragraf untuk menemukan gagasan atau ide pokok paragraf tersebut.
  4. Catatlah gagasan pokok setiap paragrafnya.
  5. Perhatikan kalimat penjelas, pilihlah kalimat penjelas yang penting dan buanglah yang hanya berupa ilustrasi, contoh, permisalan, dan sebagainya.
  6. Pilihlah kala atau kalimat yang efektif untuk menceritakan kembali. jika perlu gunakan kata yang sepadan atau ungkapan yang lebih mewakili pengertian yang panjang, tetapi dapat dipahami.
  7. Jika ada kalimat langsung, ubahlah menjadi kalimat tidak langsung agar lebih singkat.
  8. Ceritakan atau uraikan kembali dengan bahasa yang lebih mudah dipahami dan ringkas.

 

I.              Paraphrasing Method 1: Use Different Vocabulary with the Same Meaning

For example, look at this original sentence and two paraphrased equivalents:

Original Text

“It can be difficult to choose a suitable place to study English.”

Paraphrasing Text

“It is often a challenge to pick up a relevant school to learn English.”

“It is sometimes hard to select an appropriate place to learn English.”

II.              Paraphrasing Method 2: Change the Order of Words

If the original sentence has two or more clauses, change the order of the clauses.

Original Text

“If they have some help, most people can paraphrase effectively. However, practice is

important because paraphrasing is difficult.”

Paraphrasing Text

“Most people can paraphrase effectively, if they have some help. Paraphrasing is difficult, however, so practice is important.”

III.              Paraphrasing Method 3: Use Different Grammar

a. Change some of the words in the original sentence into different parts of speech (you will

often need to change the word order and some other words, too).

Original Text

“The most effective way to build your English skill is to study regularly.”

Paraphrasing Text

“The most effective way of building your English skill is to do studying on a regular basis.”

b. If the original sentence is in the active voice, change it to passive or vice versa.

Original Text

“To improve English, you should learn new vocabulary on a daily basis.”

Paraphrasing Text

“To improve English, new vocabulary should be learned on a daily basis”

Paraphrasing Examples 1

Original sentence:

The most effective way to build your English skill is to study regularly.”

After paraphrasing:

“The most effective way of building your English skill is to do studying on a regular basis.”

  • If the original sentence is in the active voice, change it to passive or vice versa.

Original sentence:

“To improve English, you should learn new vocabulary on a daily basis.”

After paraphrasing:

“To improve English, new vocabulary should be learned on a daily basis”

PRE-PARAPHRASING: EXERCISE

 

Directions: Rewrite each of the sentences, using the words in parentheses. Look first for the part of the original sentence that will need to be replaced. Find the subject of any verbs—who is doing what? Make any other changes you think are needed.

  1. People trying to interpret a situation often look at those around them to see how to react. (base reactions on)
  2. There are three things bystanders must do if they are to intervene in an emergency. (necessary)
  3. In a crowd, then, each person is less likely to notice a potential emergency than when alone. (tends to….less)
  4. Even if a person defines an event as an emergency…(decides)
  5. … the presence of other bystanders may still make each person less likely to intervene. (may feel less inclined)

Sample Rewrites:

  1. People trying to interpret a situation often base their reactions on those around them.
  2. Three things are necessary for bystanders to intervene in an emergency.
  3. In a crowd, then, each person tends to notice a potential emergency less than when alone.
  4. Even if a person decides that an event is an emergency…
  5. …each person may feel less inclined to intervene in the presence of other bystanders.

Paraphrasing Exercise

Original text:

“Romeo and Juliet is not only the tale of two young, doomed lovers; it is the story of how youth can be destroyed when the banality of adulthood is imminent” (Smith 76).

Which one is the correct paraphrase:

  1. Romeo and Juliet is not only a story of a young pair of tragic lovers; it is a tale of the destruction of youth in the face of the monotony of adulthood (Smith 76).
  1. It is the uninspired lifestyle of being an adult, and the destruction of one’s childhood innocence that results from its onset, that truly characterizes Romeo and Juliet, not simply the story of tragic unrequited love (Smith 76).

Original text

• “Students need to be more cognizant of the fact that universities are looking for both high grades and extracurricular activities when accepting new students” (Jones, 2005, p. 255).

Which one is the correct paraphrase:

  1. Young people must recognize that colleges are seeking good grades and outsides activities when admitting students (Jones, 2005).
  1. When considering the admission process at a college, academic achievement and participation in school and community activities are both equally important for students. (Jones, 2005, p. 255).

Choose the appropriate button to identify the statement that best paraphrases the topic sentence.

  1. There are those who claim the American dollar bill’s symbol of a pyramid topped with an eye bears a secret meaning. However, the pyramid was never meant to be mysterious. On the contrary, the pyramid on the dollar bill was a carefully chosen symbol designed to characterize the United States as a place of progress and faith. The Roman numerals on the pyramid base refer to 1776, the year the country was founded. The pyramid is also unfinished, representing our country’s future growth. The eye in a triangle radiating light represents the overseeing eye of a deity. The motto above the pyramid, “Annuit Coeptis,” means “He has favored our undertakings.” Below the pyramid, the motto “Novus Ordo Seculorum” means “a new order of the ages.”

Which of the following best paraphrases the topic sentence?

  1. All of the images printed on the $1 bill symbolize America’s principles and goals.
  2. The pyramid and eye on the back of the $1 bill was carefully created to represent American values.
  3. The dollar’s symbolism is typical of American currency.
  4. American currency should be redesigned to better reflect our country’s separation of church and state.
  1. In her famous 1969 book, On Death and Dying, author Elisabeth Kübler-Ross identified five stages of death (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance). Ever since the publication of that best seller, Kübler-Ross’s five stages have generally been accepted as accurate, even scientific. Recently, however, Kübler-Ross’s well-known sequence has come under fire, in part because more attention is being paid to the eccentric views on death she publicly expressed starting in the 1970s. For instance, Kübler-Ross began claiming that death did not exist at all. Inspired by what she claimed was an “out of body” experience, she started talking about death as the fountain of youth. From her new perspective, death was not an end but the beginning of spiritual renewal, a time when people would “become complete again.” Her description of death as a “sixth stage,” where people refreshed themselves before returning to the living was criticized as irrational nonsense. Kübler-Ross’s critics worried that she might be encouraging those of her fans who had psychological problems to embrace death as a way out of their pain. With more attention being paid to Kübler-Ross’s unusual views, it’s not surprising that her notions about death are being taken less seriously

Which of the following best paraphrases the topic sentence?

  1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross helped generations of people conquer their fear of dying.
  2. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross was never afraid of expressing unpopular points of view.
  3. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s unusual personal beliefs have caused many people to dismiss her conclusions about the five stages of death.
  4. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross was oddly obsessed with death and dying.
  1. One of the best-known first pets was Fala, Franklin D. Roosevelt’s black Scottish terrier. The dog went everywhere with Roosevelt, once making the news when he was accidentally left behind on a trip to the Aleutian Islands. Roosevelt’s Republican opponents accused him of spending $8 million to send a destroyer back to fetch the dog. The president’s humorous defense of his dog only increased his popularity and probably helped Roosevelt win his historic fourth term. But Fala is not the only famous first pet; a number of other presidential pets have earned the public’s notice. President Richard Nixon’s dog Checkers, for instance, has been credited with saving his political career. In a speech on national television, Nixon defended accusations of financial irregularities by acknowledging the receipt of just one personal gift, a dog named Checkers. Nixon also claimed he would never give Checkers up.Gerald Ford’s dog Liberty was so popular, the cast of the TV comedy show Saturday Night Live often included Liberty in their skits about the president. Millie, the springer spaniel of George and Barbara Bush, appeared as the author of a New York Times bestseller. First Lady Hillary Clinton increased the fame of the Clinton’s first pets with her book “Dear Socks, Dear Buddy: Kids’ Letters to the First Pets.”

Which of the following best paraphrases the topic sentence?

  1. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s dog Fala was America’s most famous First Pet.
  2. Fala was the best-known of all the presidential pets.
  3. Presidential pets are often in the news.
  4. Several First Pets have achieved fame while residing in the White House.
  1. Despite his failure as a presidential candidate, Ohio Congressman Dennis J. Kucinich’s suggestion that we establish a new Department of Peace within the federal government deserves serious consideration. A Department of Peace might help stop the senseless loss of life occurring all over the globe. If we in the United States develop more peaceful ways to coexist with other nations, we might influence others as well. A Department of Peace could, for example, study the conditions that promote both domestic and international harmony. A Department of Peace could also sponsor conflict prevention and resolution initiatives in war-torn countries. It could establish a Peace Academy to train people in nonviolent conflict resolution. All of these measures could ultimately save lives here at home and abroad.

Which of the following best paraphrases the topic sentence?

  1. For two reasons, Congress should create a Department of Peace.
  2. A Department of Peace might help put an end to global bloodshed.
  3. Congressman Dennis Kucinich is a creative problem solver with vision.
  4. The U.S. government focuses too much on war and not enough on peace.
  1. Several grueling races around the globe test the limits of human endurance. For instance, the Marathon des Sables is an ultramarathon held every April in Morocco. It covers 150 miles in 6 days through blazing heat and some of the most difficult conditions imaginable. One participant said, “The most difficult part was waking up at 5 a.m. with your legs so sore you can hardly stand up, feet blistered, bloodied, and bandaged, and then having to run a marathon in 120-plus degree heat with a 20-pound pack.” In the Sahara Marathon, participants run 26 miles on sand roads through the harsh and unforgiving Sahara Desert. The Jungle Marathon is a 7-day, 124-mile race through the Amazon jungle of Brazil. For runners who prefer cooler climates, the Pike’s Peak Marathon is known as one of the toughest in the world, for participants must run 26.3 miles up a mountain in Colorado, ascending 7,815 feet. The Everest Marathon is a 26.2-mile race over the rough mountain terrain of Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world. Runners can also participate in the North Pole Marathon, a 26.2-mile run over Arctic ice floes in sub-zero temperatures

Which of the following best paraphrases the topic sentence?

  1. Marathon runners are the most physically fit people in the world.
  2. Some marathon runners prefer races in hot climates, while others prefer racing in cold climates.
  3. The Marathon des Sables is the world’s most difficult race.
  4. Many marathon races held all over the world force participants to push themselves practically to the end of human endurance.

Original passage:

Nobody called him Abe–at least not to his face–because he loathed the nickname. It did not befit a respected professional who’d struggled hard to overcome the limitations of his frontier background. Frankly Lincoln enjoyed his status as a lawyer and politician, and he liked money, too, and used it to measure his worth. By the 1850’s, thanks to a combination of talent and sheer hard work, Lincoln was a man of substantial wealth. He had an annual income of around $5,000–the equivalent of many times that today–and large financial and real-estate investments.

Which one is the best paraphrase?

  1. No one used Lincoln’s nickname, Abe, because he detested it. It didn’t go with a lawyer and politician who had worked to get away from the restrictions of his country heritage. Lincoln liked his new position, and his wealth, and used it to gauge his status. By mid-century, his skill and labor had made him a fairly wealthy man. He had a yearly income of approximately $5,000 – equal to several times that now – and hefty business and land commitments.
  1. By the middle of the century, Lincoln enjoyed life as a well-respected lawyer and politician, having acquired a position of status and wealth that was well removed from his early “frontier background”. He now was bringing in $5,000 a year (this translates to $87,500 in 1997 dollars [Derks, 2]), and had substantial “financial and real estate investments”. As a consequence, he disliked being called Abe because of its association with his rural heritage. (Oates, 65)

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